Best Sit To Stand Lift For Home Use

Best Sit To Stand Lift For Home Use (2021): 10 Top Stand Assist Lifts + Expert Buying Guide

By kbeveridge

Best Sit To Stand Lift For Home Use

If you need a little extra help to move around the house, you may be looking for a new mobility aid. Sit to stand lifts are excellent stand assist devices that can help you get up without losing balance or hurting yourself. But which model best suits your lifestyle and needs?

The overall best sit to stand lift for home use is the Tuffcare Stand Up Electric Patient Lift. This modern device has fully electric operation to reduce strain on your back and muscles. It is also stable and offers different lift points to suit people with varying heights.

This guide looks at the best sit to stand lifts for home use. We review the leading models in detail and help you decide if they suit your needs. Lastly, we discuss what factors to look for when choosing your first stand assist lift device.

What Is a Sit to Stand Lift?

A sit to stand lift is a kind of patient lift. The device helps elevate people who cannot move or stand by themselves. In this case, it enables you to get from a seated to standing position, either in a hospital or at home.

Stand assist lifts have solid frames and a bar that you can grab onto. You can also usually affix a sit to stand lift sling to the device, supporting your body weight while you get up. These devices are typically portable and have rolling wheels.

You can find manual, battery-powered electric, and hydraulic sit to stand lifts. Most devices are designed to be used by your carer to transfer you more effectively.

What Are the Pros and Cons of Using a Sit to Stand Lift at Home?

There are advantages and disadvantages to using a sit to stand lift in your home.

Pros

  • It can reduce the risk of falls and increase overall safety.
  • You can use it for transfers from chairs, cars, and inside the bathroom.
  • The device can improve your balance and strengthen your muscles.
  • You can use it for weight-bearing activities in physical therapy.
  • It reduces strain on your carer or family members.
  • Most lifts are portable and allow you to wheel them between different rooms.
  • It can increase independence and confidence.
  • You can choose from manual or electric devices.

Cons

  • You and your carer may need training and a learning period to use the lift correctly.
  • You must be able to sit up by yourself, and you cannot use it from a lying position.
  • It can be an expensive investment if you don’t have relevant health insurance.

Best Sit to Stand Lifts for Home Use

Best Sit to Stand Lift for Home Use (Overall): Tuffcare Stand Up Electric Patient Lift

Tuffcare Stand Up Electric Patient Lift - Sit to Stand, Standing Lift, Rhino Lift with Manual Low Base - with Standing Sling(Extra Large) and Buttock Strap, 360 lb. Weight Capacity.

Pros

  • It is reasonably priced.
  • The lift includes a sling and buttock strap.
  • You can use it as a sit to stand or transport lift.
  • It has an electric operation with an emergency off switch.
  • You can also operate the base with a manual lifting arm.
  • It has various hook-up points for different heights.
  • The device has dual front and rear locking caster wheels to avoid tipping.
  • It has soft and ergonomic features.

Cons

  • It is heavier than average.
  • It has an average maximum weight capacity.

The Tuffcare Stand Up Electric Patient Lift is the overall best sit to stand lift for home use. It is a mid-range model that also includes a sling and buttock strap for safer transfers. Overall, it has an adjustable and secure design for home use.

It has electric operation, allowing you to control the device from a user-friendly panel. This power comes from a battery pack, which you can recharge or plug directly into the wall. Furthermore, the lift will switch itself off to protect the circuits in case of a power cut.

You can also use the manual lifting arm to operate the base. It has multiple hook-up points for accessories and gripping, allowing you to customize it to your height. Other excellent safety features include the wheels, which have locking mechanisms for safety, and dual wheels at the front to prevent tipping.

This sit-to-stand lift’s main drawback is that the frame is pretty heavy at 126lb (57.2kg). Therefore, it can be a little tricky to maneuver. However, overall, this is a reliable and straightforward stand assist lift.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone looking for a user-friendly and safe stand assist lift.

Graham-Field Lumex Sit-to-Stand Battery-Powered Patient Lift, 400 lb. Weight Capacity, LF2020

Pros

  • It has a higher than average maximum weight capacity.
  • It has fully electric controls.
  • The spreader bar accommodates different heights and accessories.
  • You can use the foot platform for gait training.
  • It has a mid-range price.
  • It is safe and secure.

Cons

  • The battery can lose charge quickly if you overcharge it.
  • It doesn’t have emergency backup features in case of a power cut.  

The Graham-Field Lumex Sit-to-Stand Battery-Powered Patient Lift is the best electric sit to stand lift. You can control all of the device’s movements with the ergonomic remote control. Using a fully electric system, it can move from 36.4 to 70.8 inches (92.5 to 179.8cm).

It can support up to 400lb (181.4kg) and has a spreader bar with different handhold locations. You can grab it directly or use accessories like slings or straps. Furthermore, it has locking caster wheels and an emergency stop button to keep you safe.

This is one of the best models for gait training. The foot platform is removable and has a quick-release mechanism, allowing you to use the lift as part of your physical therapy. This multifunctionality is one of its best features.

However, you may run into some issues with the battery. If you overcharge it, it can lose battery life very quickly. The sit to stand lift also lacks an emergency backup battery or manual overrides if you lose power.

Overall, this is a durable and mid-range sit to stand lift for home use. It isn’t the cheapest option you can find, but the fully electric controls can reduce any strain on your body.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: anyone who wants a sophisticated and heavy-duty stand assist lift.

Best Hydraulic Sit to Stand Lift: Invacare Get-U-Up Hydraulic Stand-Up Patient Lift

Invacare Get-U-Up Hydraulic Stand-Up Patient Lift, 350 lb. Weight Capacity, GHS350

Pros

  • It is one of the most affordable choices.
  • It is adjustable to suit different body types.
  • It rolls smoothly across indoor surfaces.
  • The lift adjusts automatically as you stand.
  • The frame is very lightweight.
  • It has a user-friendly pump.

Cons

  • It has an average maximum weight capacity.
  • The lift can be challenging to assemble.
  • Some people would feel safer with locking casters.

The Invacare Get-U-Up Hydraulic Stand-Up Patient Lift is the best hydraulic sit to stand lift. This affordable option is very lightweight, weighing in at just 88lb (39.9kg). While still moderately heavy, this makes it more maneuverable and portable than many other similar models.

You can adjust the sit to stand lift to accommodate different heights, weights, and widths. Therefore, it is versatile and flexible to the person and the situation. You can operate these adjustments with the pump, which can swivel from side to side for better accessibility.

You can adjust the leg support, resting your legs at any height. This support is padded and comfortable to reduce any aching or pain. You can also retract the footplate if needed to assist with your transfers.

One of the unique features of this stand assist lift is that the caster wheels do not lock. Invacare says this design is intentional and allows the device to reposition its center of gravity as you move. However, some people feel more secure if they can lock the frame in place.

It can also be challenging to assemble. You may need to watch some tutorial videos if you are not particularly handy. However, overall, this sit to stand lift is excellent value for money and easy to use.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone who wants a lightweight and affordable stand assist lift.

Best Manual Sit to Stand Lift: BestCare SA182H Sit-to-Stand Manual Lift

BestCare SA182H Sit-to-Stand Manual Lift, 400 lb Capacity

Pros

  • It is good value for money.
  • It has a higher than average maximum load capacity.
  • It has an adjustable knee pad for better comfort.
  • The lift is compact and can fit in smaller spaces.
  • It has a straightforward hydraulic system.
  • It rolls smoothly across most surfaces.

Cons

  • It is more difficult to use than an electric sit to stand lift.

The BestCare SA182H is the best manual sit to stand lift. It is a simple and affordable model that is also compact. While it lacks some of the extra features of some other units, it works well in smaller homes and offers various mobility solutions.

It uses a manual hydraulic system to move the different parts. You can also detach the footplate and adjust the positioning of the knee pad as needed. Because of its smaller size and smooth casters, you can move it between rooms quickly.

Despite its small size, the sit to stand lift has a higher than average load capacity. It can support up to 400lb (181.4kg). Therefore, it could be an excellent option if you need more stability than standard models.

The main downside of this model is true for all manual sit to stand lifts. They are less user-friendly than electric models and need more physical strength and dexterity to operate. However, it is cheaper than many other electric stand assist lifts, so that could be the payoff.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: anyone looking for an affordable and compact manual stand assist lift.

Invacare Reliant Battery Powered Stand-Up Patient Lift with Manual Low Base, 350 lb. Weight Capacity, RPS350-1

Pros

  • It is easy to transport between rooms.
  • It has adjustable leg supports and different grip points on the frame.
  • The footplate is stable and helps with transfers.
  • It is suitable for use in bathrooms and bedrooms.
  • It has smooth electric operation.
  • It is solid and reliable.

Cons

  • It has the average maximum load capacity.
  • It is one of the more expensive sit to stand lifts.

The Invacare Reliant is the best portable sit to stand lift. It is relatively lightweight and easy to transport between different rooms. Because of its smooth caster wheels and wide handles, you can push it to various locations around your home.

It is a premium model that allows you to make safe transfers. One of its best features is its ergonomic leg supports, which you can adjust to different heights. This model is ideal for transfers in your bedroom, living room, and bathroom.

The stand assist lift is battery-powered and offers smooth operation. Therefore, it needs minimal strength from you or your carer. Furthermore, the extra-wide baseplate is another excellent safety feature that can simplify transfers.

One of the main downsides of this model is its price. Although it’s far from the most expensive sit to stand lift for home use, it will set you back a bit. We recommend checking if Medicare or other health insurance can cover or subsidize the cost.

Overall, it is a well-built lift that can help you in various settings. If you can afford it, it could be an excellent long-term investment.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone who wants a premium and efficient stand assist lift.

Best Invacare Sit to Stand Lift: Invacare Roze Stand Up Lift

Invacare Corporation ROZE Roze Stand Up Lift by Invacare

Pros

  • It is lightweight and easy to handle.
  • It can support a high maximum weight.
  • The lift has a wide lifting range.
  • It has several grab points and allows you to attach a sling.
  • It has battery-powered components.
  • The frame has an ergonomic design.

Cons

  • It is one of the most expensive sit to stand lifts.
  • The mechanism moves slowly.

The Invacare Roze is the best Invacare sit to stand lift. This high-end model has a straightforward but sophisticated design that makes for easy transfers. Although pricey, it could be worthwhile if you have the cash to spare or excellent health insurance.

The lift is lightweight but durable. It can support up to 450lb (204.1kg), making it an excellent bariatric choice. However, it is still light and easy to maneuver, particularly in small spaces. Its compact design could be beneficial in smaller homes and for navigating around corners.

It has battery power, and you can control the movements with a simple remote. Furthermore, it has various ergonomic features, including an oversized push handle, adjustable kneepad, and removable footplate.

You can move the lift from 37 to 63.5 inches (94 to 161.3cm). However, some users have complained that the mechanism moves a little slowly. Therefore, you should consider this if time-saving is of great importance to you.

Overall, this is a sophisticated sit to stand lift that allows you to make safe and seamless transfers.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone looking to invest in a safe and ergonomic stand assist lift.

LUMEX Stand Assist Patient Transport Unit, LF1600

Pros

  • It is one of the most affordable options.
  • It supports a broad height range.
  • The maximum load capacity is higher than average.
  • It is compact and portable.
  • The frame is very lightweight.
  • It is a safe and comfortable option.
  • It is straightforward to assemble.

Cons

  • It can be challenging to maneuver on carpet.
  • It doesn’t have grip points for slings or straps.

The Lumex LF1600 is the best Lumex sit to stand lift. It is one of the cheapest models on the market, meaning it could be ideal if you’re on a tight budget. However, it is also good quality and can make transfers safer and more accessible.

It is one of the most lightweight models, weighing just 61lb (27.7kg). This low weight, paired with the smooth caster wheels and compact shape, makes it easy to maneuver on smooth surfaces. However, it can still be challenging on the carpet, so watch out for this.

Despite the low frame weight, it can support up to 400lb (181.4kg). It is also suitable for a wide range of heights from 5ft1 to 6ft6 (1.5 to 2m). However, unlike other models, you must grab onto the bar to use it. It doesn’t have easy fixing points for accessories like slings or straps.

Overall, this affordable sit to stand lift lacks some of the features of more expensive models. However, it is plenty durable and reliable for the average user.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: anyone who wants a budget-friendly and user-friendly stand assist lift.

Best ProHeal Sit to Stand Lift: ProHeal Bariatric Sit to Stand Lift

Pros

  • It has a very high maximum weight limit.
  • It includes multiple hooks to attach slings.
  • The lift has extra-wide kneepads and a reinforced frame.
  • It has various safety features.
  • It has user-friendly electric operation.
  • It includes a three-year warranty.

Cons

  • It is one of the heaviest options.
  • It can be frustrating to assemble.

The ProHeal Bariatric model is the best ProHeal sit to stand lift. It is one of the most heavy-duty options on the market, supporting up to 600lb (272.2kg). If you are too heavy for standard lifts, it could be a practical choice.

This fully electric model is also very user-friendly. You can operate the frame by pressing a button and move the base with a hands-free foot pedal. Therefore, it puts minimal strain on your carer’s body and can keep your body secure during transfers.

The sit to stand lift has locking caster wheels and an emergency quick release. Paired with its secure frame, it is one of the safest options on the market. However, it is also cumbersome at 150lb (68kg), making it tricky to maneuver.

It has various sling hooks that you can use for safer transfers. Because they allow for different positioning, you can do all kinds of transfers around the house. The extra-wide knee pads can stabilize you during this process.

Because the frame is heavy and sophisticated, it can be frustrating to assemble. We recommend checking out some video tutorials or reading the manual if you get stuck. Once completed, it is one of the most reliable sit to stand lifts.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone who needs a heavy-duty and reliable stand assist lift.

Best Arjo Sit to Stand Lift: Arjo Sara Stedy Sit to Stand Manual Lift

ArjoHuntleigh Sara Stedy Sit to Stand Manual Lift - Sling Free Operation - Reduce Caregiver Strain - Fully Assembled - Holds up to 400 LBS

Pros

  • It can support more weight than the average sit to stand lift.
  • It is suitable for a wide range of heights.
  • The pivoting seat with integrated hand grips makes it easier to use.
  • It has a sturdy handle to grip during transfers.
  • The chassis legs are pedal-operated to reduce back strain.
  • It has locking caster wheels to prevent falls.

Cons

  • It has a higher-end price tag.
  • Manual lifts are more difficult to use than electric.
  • You cannot use it with slings or other accessories.

The Arjo Sara Stedy is the best Arjo sit to stand lift. It has a unique design in that it isn’t compatible with slings. Because it is manual, you use your body to get to a standing position without the need for a caregiver to operate the controls.

It has a few features that make it more intuitive to use. For example, it has a swiveling seat with integrated handgrips. This allows you to use your strength and support while transitioning to a standing position. The durable handle also has plenty of surface area to grip during this process.

It is a sturdy model that can support up to 400lb (181.4kg). It also has broad compatibility with many body types, suitable for people between 4ft11 and 6ft6 (1.5 and 2m). However, you will need more strength and dexterity to use this manual model than if you choose an electric sit to stand lift.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: anyone who wants an ergonomic and well-designed manual stand assist lift.

Best Hoyer Sit to Stand Lift: Hoyer Journey Sit to Stand Lift

Hoyer Journey Sit to Stand Lift - Hoyer Journey Sit to Stand Lift

Pros

  • It folds down for storage and transport.
  • It uses Smart Monitor technology to keep you and the lift safe in the long term.
  • You can adjust the cradle and the kneepad.
  • It has a push pad to help with movements.
  • It is electric and easy to use.

Cons

  • It is a less affordable model.
  • It has a lower maximum load capacity.

The Hoyer Journey is the best Hoyer sit to stand lift. It is one of the most technologically advanced models on the market, incorporating innovative design features. For example, the Smart Monitor technology makes sure that you are using it correctly. Therefore, it minimizes risks and extends the life of the lift.

This is one of the most compact and portable models. It is lightweight and folds down, which makes it easy to transport. However, this has a trade-off because it can only support 340lb (154.2kg) of weight. You should make sure that this is durable enough for your needs.

It is one of the most adjustable models. You can move the kneepads to accommodate your body. Furthermore, it is one of the only lifts that allow you to adjust the cradle for your height fully. This cradle is also compatible with most sit to stand lift slings.

The stand assist lift is fully electric and uses a push pad that helps you move. Therefore, it is one of the most user-friendly models. However, these sophisticated features make it a more pricey investment.

We recommend this sit to stand lift for: someone looking for a technologically advanced and innovative model.

Best Sit to Stand Lift Accessories

The most common accessory for sit to stand lifts is the sling. It can support your body weight and make transfers less risky. Thankfully, most varieties are compatible with the leading stand assist lift models.

Best Sit to Stand Lift Sling: ProHeal Universal Sit to Stand Lift Sling

ProHeal Universal Sit to Stand Lift Sling, X Large, 55”L x 16”W - Polyester Slings for Patient Lifts - Compatible with Hoyer, Invacare, McKesson, Drive, Lumex, Medline, Joerns and More

Pros

  • There are various size options.
  • It has broad compatibility with the leading sit to stand lift brands.
  • You can machine-wash and air-dry the sling.
  • It has a high maximum weight capacity.
  • It is comfortable and durable.

Cons

  • You must be careful to choose the correct size.

The Proheal Universal model is the best sit to stand lift swing. Because of its universal compatibility, you can use it with most of the leading brands. It also has various size options to accommodate different weights and widths.

It is durable and long-lasting. Depending on the size you choose, it can support from 350 to 600lb (158.8 to 272.2kg). You can also extend the product’s life by washing it regularly. However, we don’t recommend using it with an electric dryer as it can weaken the material.

The sling includes various straps to fix it safely to the sit to stand lift. However, you must be careful to choose the correct size for your body. Otherwise, it can slip and present a hazard during transfers.

Overall, this is a reliable sit to stand lift sling that can work with most models on the market.

We recommend this sit to stand lift sling for: someone who wants a reliable and durable stand assist lift sling.

Sit to Stand Lift FAQs

Are Sit to Stand Lifts Covered by Medicare?

Medicare covers sit to stand lifts under Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) and classifies them as durable medical equipment (DME). This scheme covers up to 80% of the cost of a sit to stand lift, provided that you meet the following criteria:

  • Your doctor prescribes the lift as a medical necessity.
  • Your doctor is a Medicare member.
  • The sit to stand lift provider is a Medicare member.

If you are worried about your Medicare coverage, we recommend contacting them directly. You may also like to speak with your doctor to see the best options for you.

What Are the Major Brands of Sit to Stand Lifts?

There are a few popular brands that manufacture sit to stand lifts:

  • Invacare: This multinational company operates in more than 100 different countries. Based in Ohio, the American brand has been working since 1971. It is one of the leaders in the medical equipment industry. Its core values are innovation, value, and healthcare.
  • Lumex: Lumex is one of the brands that belong to Graham Field. It is an influential global company with a catalog of more than 50,000 medical products. GF has its base in the United States but serves the healthcare industry all over the world.
  • Hoyer: Hoyer Lifts are made by a company called Joerns. It is a healthcare company that started in 1889. Since then, the American company has focused on various healthcare settings and products, including mobility aids and home care services.
  • Arjo: This Swedish company has been operating since 1957. It manufactures and distributes medical equipment in more than 100 countries. It also works directly with healthcare settings to improve their operations and patient care.

You can also find models from smaller but still high-quality brands like BestCare, ProHeal, and Tuffcare. You may like to shop around to see which models best suit your mobility needs.

What Is the Price Range of Sit to Stand Lifts?

You can find a budget sit to stand lift for around $600. For example, the LUMEX LF1600 costs just over $600, and it is one of the cheapest options. At the high-end price point, you can pay around $7000 for a premium model. The Invacare Roze Stand Up Lift will set you back around $6800.


However, many models cost between $1000 and $2000. With the help of Medicare or other private health insurance, you should be able to get a mid-range stand assist lift for a fair price.

Where to Buy a Sit to Stand Lift?

Online

You have a few online options for buying a sit to stand lift:

  • Amazon: This is one of the most popular options for buying online mobility aids. You can see ratings and read reviews from real customers, which is one of the best features. Amazon also allows you to sort by price and brand and offers shipping in many different countries.
  • RehabMart: This American company is based in the US but also offers international shipping. It stocks stand assist lifts from various leading brands, including Invacare and Arjo. Some of these products also have customer ratings so that you can compare them.
  • Preferred Health Choice: PHC operates within the continental United States. It offers free shipping when your item costs more than $70 and the company stocks a variety of brands. However, it does not ship internationally, so only US customers can use it.
  • Homepro Medical Supplies: This company is based in New York City but offers shipping all over the country. This is free for orders over $100, and Homepro also offers paid assembly and installation services. It also has a physical store in Brooklyn if you live in the area.

In-Store

Depending on where you live, you may be able to buy a sit to stand lift in-store from any of these locations:

  • Walmart: This famous department store chain sells everything from groceries to mobility aids. You can find several sit to stand lifts for in-store pickup. You can also check if particular models are available in your closest location to save you from a wasted trip.
  • HME: If you live in British Columbia, Canada, HME has three showrooms in Richmond, South Surrey, and Victoria. The company stocks various stand assist lifts and also has professional staff to assist you with any questions.
  • Local medical supply stores: You may be able to find retail or wholesale locations that sell medical supplies and mobility aids. If you don’t know any in your area, your doctor should be able to point you in the right direction.

Where to Rent a Sit to Stand Lift?

If you only need a sit to stand lift in the short term, renting one can be a more economical choice. You may be able to rent a stand assist lift from these sources:

  • Homepro Medical Supplies: HMS also offers rental services. You can rent with weekly or monthly prices, plus an additional delivery or pick-up fee. The company also takes a security deposit in case you damage the device.
  • Bellevue Healthcare: This company offers rental of medical equipment across the Pacific Northwest states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. You can only choose monthly rental and if you want to include stand assist accessories.
  • HME: This Canadian company also rents sit to stand lifts. It has monthly rental rates and can also install the stand assist lift in your house. However, their rental area is restricted to British Columbia.

Where to Buy a Used Sit to Stand Lift

Secondhand and used sit to stand lifts are other affordable choices. You may be able to find one from these places:

  • eBay: This is one of the most popular websites for buying and selling items. eBay has everything, and sit to stand lifts are no exception. However, we recommend checking that the seller is legitimate and has positive reviews from other buyers.
  • Craigslist: This famous website is a community-driven open marketplace. It has branches worldwide, and you can buy and sell almost anything. However, you should always use your best judgment to choose a reputable seller.
  • Kijiji: This Canadian open marketplace website allows you to sell and buy sit to stand lifts and other devices. You can search by location and find a wide variety of products with photos and product descriptions.
  • Facebook Marketplace: This is an excellent source of new and secondhand stand assist lifts and other mobility aids. You can search for options in your area and contact the buyer directly.

Buying Guide: Tips for Finding the Best Sit to Stand Lift for Your Needs

There are some factors you should consider when choosing a sit to stand lift for home use:

  • Maximum load capacity: Stand assist lifts have a maximum weight that they can safely support. If you are heavier than average, you might like to consider a bariatric model. Remember to factor in the weight of your clothing and shoes too.
  • Mode of operation: Manual sit to stand lifts are generally more affordable but require more strength to operate. Hydraulic or battery-powered electric lifts can reduce body strain and are more user-friendly.
  • Adjustability: Choose a model that has adjustability to accommodate your height or different seating positions. Otherwise, you and your carer may overextend yourselves and cause an injury.
  • Portability: Unless you only use the lift in one room, choose a unit with high-quality wheels. If it has a lightweight frame, this will make it straightforward to transport and use in any scenario.
  • Accessories: Sit to stand lift slings can make transfers safer and more comfortable. You may like to buy from the same brand as your lift. Otherwise, make sure the two are compatible.
  • Price: The sky’s the limit with sit to stand lift prices. We recommend checking if your health insurance or Medicare will cover some or all of the cost. Otherwise, a second-hand model can also reduce costs.

Conclusion

In conclusion, sit to stand lifts can be helpful if you need help getting to a standing position. You can use them in the living room, bathroom, or for transfers to and from your car. These devices can work together with your carer or family member to increase your mobility.

The overall best sit to stand lift for home use is the Tuffcare Stand Up Electric Patient Lift. It is user-friendly and suits many body types. Therefore, it is one of the most convenient and safest options on the market.

When choosing a stand assist lift, you should make sure that it can support your weight and adjust to your height. You should also consider if a manual or electric stand assist lift best fits your needs. Lastly, you might like to purchase accessories like a sling to make the process even easier.


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