Adjustable Beds – Directory of Scientific Studies

Adjustable Beds – Directory of Scientific Studies

By Maurice

Adjustable Beds – Directory of Scientific Studies

Adjustable beds can improve various health conditions commonly suffered by seniors, from snoring to sleep apnea to acid reflux.

If you'd like to read the original studies on how adjustable beds do this, we've included summaries of all the studies we could find (if you know of any we've missed, please contact us).

In a nutshell, the main health benefit of adjustable beds has to do with gravity - when your head (and upper body) is raised, it counteracts the conditions that cause snoring, sleep apnea, and other health conditions. 

Want to learn more? Check out the studies below! 

Title

Topic

Sleep Apnea

Year

2017

Objective

The purpose of this study is to test the effects of a mild degree of head-of-bed elevation (HOBE) (7.5°) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and sleep quality.

Methods

OSA patients were recruited from a single sleep clinic (Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil). Following a baseline polysomnography (PSG), all patients underwent a PSG with HOBE (within 2 weeks). In addition, a subset of patients performed a third PSG without HOBE. The laboratory bed was 2.10 m long and the mattress was at 0.6 m from the floor. A 15-cm-high piece of wood under the head-of-bed legs was used, resulting in a tilt of 7.5°.

Results

Fifty-two patients were included in the study (age 53.2 ± 9.1 years; BMI 29.6 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), neck circumference 38.9 ± 3.8 cm, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale 15 ± 7). Compared to baseline, HOBE significantly decreased the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 15.7 [11.3-22.5] to 10.7 [6.6-16.5] events/h; p < 0.001 and increased minimum oxygen saturation from 83.5 [77.5-87] to 87 [81-90]%; p = 0.003. The sleep architecture at baseline and HOBE were similar. However, sleep efficiency increased slightly but significantly with HOBE (87.2 [76.7-90.7] vs 88.8 [81.6-93.3]; p = 0.005). The AHI obtained at the third PSG without HOBE (n = 7) returned to baseline values.

Conclusion

Mild head-of-bed-elevation significantly improves obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity without interfering with sleep architecture and therefore is a simple alternative treatment to ameliorate OSA.

Title

Topic

Sleep Apnea

Year

2011

Objective

The treatment of choice for severe OSA is the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but not all patients haveaccess to treatment. Some studies suggest that the bedhead elevation can stabilize the upper airway in OSA patients. However, thisposition was never tested as a possible therapy for OSA. The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of the slope of the bedhead inpatients with OSA.

Methods

Cross-sectional study conducted at the clinic of Sleep Medicine. All patients underwent standard polysomnography (PSGs)using the scoring system of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM Manual for Scoring Sleep, 2007) with equipment ALICE 5,Respironics ®. In a period of up to 2 weeks underwent polysomnography with slope obtained by elevating the head at 15 cm, resulting in an inclination of 30 ° (PSGe). Data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0, using t test for paired samples. The p value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results

We evaluated 17 patients (8 men), aged 51.31 ± 9.76, body mass index 30.86 ± 5.49. The time between the first and secondpolysomnography was 10 ± 3 days. Regarding the baseline PSG, there were significant improvements with significant reduction inapnea-hypopnea index (AHI) total (PSGs1 20 ± 14 vs PSGe 15 ± 14, p = 0.0003), NREM AHI (PSGs 18 ± 14 vs PSGe 13 ± 13, p = 0.0002),number of respiratory events (baseline PSGs 123 ± 91 vs PSGe 91 ± 82, p = 0.0047), number of hypopneas (PSGs 101 ± 78 vs PSGe 71 ± 70,p = 0.0038), duration of snoring percentage (PSGs 32 ± 21 vs PSGe 21 ± 16, p = 0.023) and snoring in minutes (PSGs 123 ± 77 vs PSGe 79 ±61, p = 0.036), hypopnea index (PSGs17 ± 13 vs PSGe12 ± 12, p = 0.0017) and REM sleep latency (175.61 ± 76.84 PSGs, PSGe130.91 ± 50.56,p = 0.012). The minimum oxygen saturation showed a trend toward improvement (baseline PSGs83 ± 8 vs 85 ± 8 with elevation, p =0.079).

Conclusion

Elevation of the head at 30 degrees obtained with inclination of 30 degres (15 cm) significantly reduces obstructive sleep apnea (OAS), which is a simple measure that may help patients awaiting diagnosis or treatment.

Title

Topic

Sleep Apnea

Year

1997

Objective

To investigate the mechanisms by which this occurs we assessed upper airway stability in eight patients with severe OSA in three postures (supine, elevated to 30 degrees, and lateral). 

Methods

We used a specially adapted nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) mask to measure upper airway closing pressure (UACP) and upper airway opening pressure (UAOP) during non-REM sleep. Statistical comparisons were made between postures using ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results

Elevation resulted in a less collapsible airway compared with both the supine and lateral positions (mean UACP: 30 degrees elevation -4.0 +/- 3.2 compared with supine 0.3 +/- 2.4 cm H2O, p < 0.05 and; lateral -1.1 +/- 2.2 cm H2O, p < 0.05). Supine UACP and lateral UACP were not significantly different. Elevation or lateral positioning produced a 50% reduction in mean UAOP (supine 10.4 +/- 3.5 cm H2O compared with 30 degrees elevation 5.3 +/- 2.1, p < 0.05; and lateral 5.5 +/- 2.1 cm H2O, p < 0.05).

Conclusion

We conclude that in severely affected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients upper body elevation, and to a lesser extent lateral positioning, significantly improve upper airway stability during sleep, and may allow therapeutic levels of CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) to be substantially reduced.

Title

Topic

Sleep Apnea

Year

2015

Objective

We hypothesized that rostral fluid shift will decrease in semi-recumbent (45-degree elevated) position, and evaluated the effect of semi-recumbent sleeping on severity of sleep apnea in HF patients with OSAS.

Methods

Demographic, anthropometric characteristics and medical history of 30 consecutive patients with HF and OSAS were recorded. The patients underwent two polysomnographic procedures within one week: one was performed while lying flat and the other was in semi-recumbent position. Out of 30 patients (26 men, mean age 54.7±10.2), 16 patients (53.3%) were obese and 29 (96.7%) had co-morbidities other than HF.

Results

Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 30.8±20.7 events/h while lying flat and decreased to 17.8±12.1 events/h in semi-recumbent position (p<0.0001). Similarly, oxygen desaturation index decreased from 22.3±19.8 to 12.7±11.5 events/h (p<0.0001), and the percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation (SpO2) <90% (p=0.036) and lowest SpO2 (p=0.004) were improved in semi-recumbent position. Besides, the percentage of stage N2 sleep decreased from 47.0% to 39.6% compared to lying flat (p=0.014).

Conclusion

The present findings support that the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OAS) decreased significantly in semi-recumbent sleep position in patients with heart failure (HF). Therefore, semi-recumbent sleeping may be a promising therapeutic option in the management of HF related sleep apnea.

Title

Topic

Sleep Apnea

Year

2010

Objective

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of patient position on collapsibility of the pharyngeal airway in anesthetized and paralyzed patients with OSA. The authors tested the hypothesis that the passive pharynx is structurally less collapsible during sitting than during supine posture.

Methods

Total muscle paralysis was induced with general anesthesia in nine patients with OSA, eliminating neuromuscular factors contributing to pharyngeal patency. The cross-sectional area of the pharynx was measured endoscopically at different static airway pressures. Comparison of static pressure-area plots between the supine and sitting (62° head-up) allowed assessment of the postural differences of the mechanical properties of the pharynx.

Results

Maximum cross-sectional area was greater during sitting than during supine posture at both retropalatal (median (10th-90th percentile): 1.91 (1.52-3.40) versus 1.25 (0.65-1.97) cm) and retroglossal (2.42 (1.72-3.84) versus 1.75 (0.47-2.35) cm) airways. Closing pressure of the passive pharynx was significantly lower during sitting than supine posture. Differences of the closing pressures between the postures are 5.89 (3.73-11.6) and 6.74 (4.16-9.87) cm H2O, at retropalatal and retroglossal airways, respectively, and did not differ between the pharyngeal segments.

Conclusion

Postural change from supine to sitting significantly improves collapsibility of pharyngeal airway in anesthetized and paralyzed patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Title

Topic

Snoring

Year

2017

Objective

In order to increase uptake we propose to use an actuated bed, which is equipped with microphones and controlled in closed loop. The inclination of the part of the bed which is supporting the trunk is increased to open the upper airways, whenever snoring sounds are detected. During snoring-free periods the bed goes back to its original position to allow the user to move freely.

Methods

Cell

Results

Cell

Conclusion

During this test night, the bed was able to stop the snorer from snoring in four out of five occasions.

Title

Topic

Snoring

Year

2020

Objective

Avoiding supine position can reduce snoring in most habitual snorers. However, devices that restrict the sleeping position cause discomfort or disrupt sleep resulting in low compliance. Therefore, mechanisms, which lift the trunk of the user without disturbing sleep, have been proposed. We present the first study, which investigates whether individual interventions provided by beds with lifting mechanisms are able to stop snoring (success rate) and whether they reduce the snoring index (number of total snores divided by total time in bed) using a repeated measures design. In addition, we investigated whether the intervention is interfering with the subjective sleep quality.

Methods

Twenty-two subjects were observed for four nights (adaptation, baseline, and two intervention nights). During intervention nights, the bed lifted the trunk of the user in closed-loop manner. Subjects were divided in three groups (non-snorer, snorer one, and snorer two). Non-snorers were lifted by the bed at random time points during the night. In group snorer one, a stepwise increase of the bed inclination was compared with going directly to a randomly selected angle. In group snorer two, the influence of a small inclination angle (10 ∘) and a big inclination angle (20 ∘) was compared.

Results

Snoring was stopped successfully in 22% (small angle) and 67% (big angle) of the interventions. This did not lead to a significant reduction in the snoring index. The subjective sleep quality was not reduced by the intervention.

Conclusion

The anti-snoring bed is able to stop individual episodes of habitual snoring without reducing the subjective sleep quality.

Title

Topic

Reflux/Heartburn

Year

2011

Objective

Nocturnal gastro‐esophageal reflux causes heartburn and sleep disturbances impairing quality of life. Lifestyle modifications, like bed head elevation during sleep, are thought to alleviate the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. We tested the hypothesis that bed head elevation might decrease recumbent acid exposure compared to sleeping in a flat bed.

Methods

Patients of symptomatic nocturnal reflux and documented recumbent (supine) reflux verified by esophageal pH test entered the trial. On day 1, baseline pH was measured while the patient slept on a flat bed. Then patients slept on a bed with the head end elevated by a 20‐cm block for the next 6 consecutive days from day 2 to day 7. The pH test was repeated on day 2 and day 7. Each patient acted as his own control.

Results

Twenty of 24 (83.3%) patients with mean age of 36 ± 5.5 years completed the trial. The mean (± SD) supine reflux time %, acid clearance time, number of refluxes 5 min longer and symptom score on day 1 and day 7 were 15.0 ± 8.4 and 13.7 ± 7.2; P = 0.001, 3.8 ± 2.0 and 3.0 ± 1.6; P = 0.001, 3.3 ± 2.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2; P = 0.001, and 2.3 ± 0.6 and 1.5 ± 0.6; P = 0.04, respectively. The sleep disturbances improved in 13 (65%) patients.

Conclusion

Bed head elevation reduced esophageal acid exposure and acid clearance time in nocturnal (supine) refluxers and led to some relief from heartburn and sleep disturbance.

Title

Topic

Reflux/Heartburn

Year

1981

Objective

To ascertain how elevation of the head of the bed, bethanechol, and antacid foam tablets affect gastroesophageal reflux, we used prolonged intraesophageal pH monitoring in 55 symptomatic patients.

Methods

Acid exposure was separated into reflux frequency and esophageal acid clearance time and recorded during the day in the upright posture and recumbent at night. Values before and during each therapy were compared to physiologic reflux in 15 asymptomatic controls.

Results

Cell

Conclusion

Ten patients slept with the head of the bed elevated and had a 67% improvement in the acid clearance time

Title

Topic

Reflux/Heartburn

Year

1977

Objective

Continuous oesophageal pH measurements were used to assess the influence of posture (lying, sitting, bed-up) on gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Methods

Cell

Results

The percentage of time during which oesophageal pH was below 5 and the number of reflux episodes was significantly reduced when patients were in bed-up position than when sitting or lying.

Conclusion

The results suggest that by adopting the bed-up position (elevation of the head end of the bed with blocks of 28 cm), the patient will have a symptomatic benefit, the frequency of reflux is decreased, and acid clearing is improved.


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